Communications between pilots of aircraft and air traffic control are based on a document from ICAO published in Annex 10 Volume 2 (Communications Procedures) to the Convention on International Civil Aviation and ICAO PANS-ATM (Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Air Traffic Management) Doc. 4444.
The manual we present here is from the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority and it is free for everyone. It is based on the ICAO documentation and expands where misunderstanding could arise in ICAO phraseology. I feel its therefore even better.
Eurocontrol has published a 'Guide to phraseology for general aviation pilots in Europe' it is a full color presentation in pdf format (9 MB). Very useful as a reference manual after studying the CAP 413. For commercial pilots we also have a quick reference guide, it is a supplement to CAP 413 for commercial air transport pilots.
ICAO publishes Annex 10, which contains all Aeronautical Telecommunications. We have Volume II Communication Procedures for you to study.
Aircraft radio communications follow a certain 'lingo' which, to the untrained ear, is somewhat cryptic. But with time and practice you are able to follow the conversation. Of much help are the manual and courses available to student pilots and aviation enthusiast. A number of apps can also be bought for any mobile device or pc to even practice radio calls at your own pace.
I think it is very important, safety wise, that every pilot takes an aviation radio course and get familiar with the correct usage of the language. The manual below gives you a good head start in such a course.
Below the UK CAA CAP413 document, edition 23 of Jan, 21st 2021 and 365 pages in size (3.5 MB). Notwithstanding the fact that this document was written for the UK, its good study material for all pilots of all countries.
Excerpt from the document:
The aim of the United Kingdom Radiotelephony Manual (CAP 413) is to provide pilots, Air Traffic Services personnel and other ground personnel, both civil and military, with a compendium of clear, concise, standardized phraseology and associated guidance, for radiotelephony (RTF) communication in United Kingdom airspace.
To continue reading see the pdf below: