Communications between pilots of aircraft and air traffic control are based on a document from ICAO published in Annex 10 Volume 2 (Communications Procedures) to the Convention on International Civil Aviation and ICAO PANS-ATM (Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Air Traffic Management) Doc. 4444.
The manual we present here is from the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority and it is free for everyone. It is based on the ICAO documentation and expands where misunderstanding could arise in ICAO praseology. I feel its therefore even better.
Eurocontrol has published a 'Guide to phraseology for general aviation pilots in Europe' it is a full color presentation in pdf format (9 MB). Very useful as a reference manual after studying the CAP 413.
For commercial pilots we also have a quick reference guide, it is a supplement to CAP 413 for commercial air transport pilots.
ICAO publishes Annex 10, which contains all Aeronautical Telecommunications. We have Volume II Communication Procedures for you to study.
Below the UK CAA CAP413 document, edition 22 of May, 16th 2016 and 372 pages in size (6.3 MB). Notwithstanding the fact that this document was written for the UK, its good reading for all pilots.
Excerpt from the document:
The aim of the United Kingdom Radiotelephony Manual (CAP 413) is to provide pilots, Air Traffic Services personnel and other ground personnel, both civil and military, with a compendium of clear, concise, standardized phraseology and associated guidance, for radiotelephony (RTF) communication in United Kingdom airspace.
To continue reading see the pdf below: