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  • AirAsia X to launch Kuala Lumpur-Tokyo Narita service

    Date: 08/22/2019 04:16 PM

    AirAsia X to launch Kuala Lumpur-Tokyo Narita service[email protected]Thu, 08/22/2019 - 14:16

    Malaysian LCC AirAsia X will introduce new direct service from Kuala Lumpur to Tokyo Narita starting Nov. 20.

    AirAsia X Malaysia CEO Benyamin Ismail announced the route via social media, writing the new route will allow passengers the ability to access Tokyo “either through Narita Airport or Haneda Airport, giving them more flexibility on flight times and connectivity ... these new services are in response to overwhelming consumer demand and ahead of what will be a big year for Tokyo tourism in 2020.”

    The 4X-weekly Tokyo Narita flight will complement AirAsia X’s existing daily flight to Tokyo Haneda and will add 156,000 seats to the route annually. The Haneda flights depart the Malaysian capital in the afternoon while the Narita flight departs at midnight.

    “Operating from two airports in Tokyo with different flight times will also entice more fly-thru guests connecting from other cities within our global network, whilst at the same time, providing Malaysians more flight options to travel to Japan’s capital and largest city,” Benyamin added.

    The airline did not specify if the route will use the new Airbus A330-900. Its Thai affiliate AirAsia X Thailand operates 3X-daily flights to Narita, with one of the daily flights using an A330-900, of which AirAsia has 66 on order.

    “AirAsia recently took delivery of the airline’s first Airbus A330neo aircraft, which flew its maiden flight from Bangkok’s Don Mueang [International Airport] to Narita on Aug. 15,” AirAsia X told ATW. “Future deliveries of additional A330neo aircraft to be based in Bangkok or Kuala Lumpur will be announced in due course.”

    Chen Chuanren, [email protected]

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  • Selected U.S. Military Contracts for the Week of March 6 - March 10, 2017

    Date: 03/15/2017 02:41 AM

    Selected U.S. Military Contracts for the Week of March 6 - March 10, 2017[email protected]Wed, 03/15/2017 - 01:41

    Selected U.S. military contracts for March 6, 2017

    U.S. ARMY

    Blue Storm Associates Inc., doing business as Pemdas Technologies and Innovation, Alexandria, Virginia, was awarded a $49,500,000 order dependent contract for the Atmospheric Sensing and Prediction System. Bids were solicited via the internet with one received. U.S. Army Contracting Command, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, is the contracting activity (W911NF-17-D-0001).

    Selected U.S. military contracts for March 7, 2017

    U.S. AIR FORCE

    Kelly Aviation Center LP, San Antonio, has been awarded a $1,001,978,024 indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity contract for KC-10 engine contractor logistic support. Contractor will provide engine teardown and overhaul, on-wing support/contract field teams, and engine parts and logistics. In addition, the contractor will provide all support required to fulfill this requirement, including but not limited to labor, materials, tools, equipment, parts, and transportation. Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, Tinker AFB, Oklahoma, is the contracting activity (FA8105-17-D-0002).

    U.S. NAVY

    Avian LLC, Lexington Park, Maryland, is being awarded an $11,402,443 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract to provide support for the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division’s Integrated System Evaluation Experimentation and Test Department (AIR-5.1). Services provided will include flight test engineering, programmatic, administrative, design, execution, analysis, evaluation, and reporting of tests and experiments of aircraft, unmanned air systems, weapons and weapons systems. The Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Patuxent River, Maryland, is the contracting activity (N00421-17-C-0049).

    Selected U.S. military contracts for March 8, 2017

    U.S. NAVY

    Sierra Nevada Corp., Rancho, California, is being awarded a $30,995,905 modification to a previously awarded firm-fixed-price, cost-plus-fixed-fee, indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity contract (N00174-09-D-0003) to extend the ordering period and exercise Option Year 6 for the procurement and support of the transmitting set, countermeasures AN/PLT-5, to support explosive ordnance disposal personnel.  The AN/PLT-5 is a man-portable system in support of the Joint Service Explosive Ordnance Disposal Counter Radio Controlled Improvised Explosive Device Electronic Warfare program. The Naval Surface Warfare Center Indian Head Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division, Indian Head, Maryland, is the contracting activity.

    Vector Planning and Services Inc., San Diego, is being awarded a potential $17,910,070 indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity, cost-plus-fixed-fee contract to provide cyberspace science, research, engineering, and technology integration. Support includes innovative technology assessment and development; rapid software development and prototyping; enabling capability training; security engineering; and cybersecurity risk management.  This is one of four multiple-award contracts. All awardees will have the opportunity to compete for task orders during the ordering period.  The Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific, San Diego, is the contracting activity (N66001-17-D-0117).

    Selected U.S. military contracts for March 9, 2017

    U.S. MISSILE DEFENSE AGENCY

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems Co., Sunnyvale, California, was awarded a $53,052,807 competitive cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for a 36-month period with no options for the Multi-Object Kill Vehicle Technology Risk Reduction (TRR) effort. This contract represents part of the Missile Defense Agency’s technology risk reduction strategy to improve performance and reduce risk for a gimbaled seeker assembly, integrated avionics assembly, component integration and testing, and an advanced seeker. The Missile Defense Agency, Huntsville, Alabama, is the contracting activity (HQ0147-17-C-0002).

    U.S. NAVY

    ViON Corp., Herndon, California, is being awarded a $34,790,000 indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity contract to provide Capacity as a Service support to Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (Spawar) Headquarters, Spawar System Center Pacific and Spawar System Center Atlantic. The Capacity as a Service acquisition model allows Spawar to more accurately scale, up and down, its information technology (IT) infrastructure to meet evolving mission requirements. Savings are realized through no up-front costs and a “pay as you go” acquisition model, reducing waste usually associated with overbuying of IT equipment to eventually meet an expectation of mission requirement. Under this contract, ViON is responsible for providing on-demand, on-premise computing, networking and storage solutions for a variety of systems and applications for the command’s research, development, testing and evaluation core infrastructures, laboratory and data center environments. This contract includes options, which if exercised, would bring the maximum contract value to $49,990,000. The Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command, San Diego, is the contracting activity (N00039-17-D-0003).

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  • Product Realization Pop Quiz

    Date: 04/18/2016 07:42 PM

    Product Realization Pop Quiz[email protected]Mon, 04/18/2016 - 17:42

    How well do you understand Product Realization?
    Aerospace and Defense companies such as yours are looking for ways to gain insight into program decisions that impact cost, timing and quality. To effectively compete and achieve program execution excellence, you need to make manufacturing a core part of the development process.

    Put your Product Realization knowledge to test with this pop quiz. Complete the short quiz and be entered to win one of two $50 Amazon gifts cards!

    To help you with the answers, please download the white paper Product realization facilitates a collaborative approach.

     

  • Embraer E-Jet E170/E175

    Date: 10/04/2022 11:17 PM

    Embraer E-Jet E170/E175[email protected]Tue, 10/04/2022 - 21:17

    The E-Jet series is a family of regional jets (RJ) produced by Brazilian manufacturer Embraer S.A. that includes the E170 and E175. Based on the ERJ 170 type, the variants of the ERJ 170-100 are marketed as the E170, while the ERJ 170-200 uses the E175 commercial designation. Launched by Embraer at the 1999 Paris Air Show, the first flight of an E-Jet— an E170—took place on Feb. 19, 2002, from the company’s facilities in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil. Following its flight-test program, the first two E170 variants—the ERJ 170-100 STD and LR—were certified by the Brazilian National Civil Aviation Agency [Agencia Nacional de Aviacao Civil (ANAC)] on Feb, 19, 2004. Two additional variants of the ERJ 170-100 type—the ERJ 170-100 SU and SE—were certified later that year. Subsequent to its certification, the first E170s were delivered to LOT Polish Airlines and US Airways on March 8, 2004, with the first revenue flight of an E-Jet taking place between Warsaw and Vienna on March 17, 2004. Prior to that delivery, US Airways placed the North American launch order for the E170 in May 2003, an order that included commitments for 85 airplanes.

    Less than 16 months after the first flight of the E170, the first flight of an E175 (Serial No. 0014) took place on June 14, 2003, with a second flight-test E175 (Serial No. 0017) making its first flight just weeks later on Aug. 7, 2003. The first variants marketed as the E175—the ERJ 170-200 STD and LR—were also certified in 2004, with additional variants receiving approval in September 2005 and February 2018. Following its certification in December 2004, the first delivery of an E175 was made to Air Canada on July 19, 2005.

    In addition to the first-generation E170 and E175, a second-generation E175—dubbed the E175-E2—was announced at the 2013 Paris Air Show, with its entry into service initially expected to occur in 2020. Coinciding with the E2 program’s launch, U.S. regional carrier SkyWest Airlines placed the first order for the E175-E2 at that year’s Paris Air Show, an order that included firm commitments for 100 airplanes and purchase rights for another 100. The first E175-E2, registered as PR-ZXM, made its first flight on Dec. 12, 2019, from the airport adjacent to Embraer’s manufacturing facilities in Sao Jose dos Campos, beginning a flight-test program that will include three flight-test airframes. That first flight lasted 2 hr. 18 min. and “evaluated aircraft performance, flight quality and systems behavior,” with the takeoff and landing performed with the “fly-by-wire (FBW) controls in normal mode.”

    Regardless of any differences between the variants of the E-Jet series, the type certificate for all variants of the ERJ 170 is held by Embraer S.A. of Sao Jose dos Campos, a certificate that was formerly held by Yabora Industria Aeronautica S.A.

    E-Jet Series Variant

    Brazilian (ANAC) Certification Date

    E-Jet Series Variant

    Brazilian (ANAC) Certification Date

    ERJ 170-100 STD

    Feb. 19, 2004

    ERJ 170-200 STD

    Dec. 22, 2004

    ERJ 170-100 LR

    ERJ 170-200 LR

    ERJ 170-100 SU

    April 29, 2004

    ERJ 170-200 SU

    Sept. 30, 2005

    ERJ 170-100 SE

    Sept. 16, 2004

    ERJ 170-200 LL

    Feb. 5, 2018

    Cabin Configurations and Passenger Capacity

    From a passenger-capacity standpoint, the variants of the E170 can accommodate 70-78 passengers, with the ERJ 170-100 STD and LR certified to accommodate the latter capacity figure. For those airframes, Embraer markets the 78-seat layout as a high-density configuration, with the seats in that configuration having a pitch of 30 in., 31 in. or 33 in. Another single-class configuration option for the E170 is advertised as having 72 seats with a 32-in. pitch, while a dual-class configured E170 offers 66 seats (six in a premium cabin that have a 40-in. pitch and 60 in the main cabin with a 32-in. pitch). In contrast, the ERJ 170-100 SU and SE have reduced capacities of 76 and 70, respectively. Beyond the space in the cabin, Embraer notes that the maximum cargo volume of the E170 is 508.18 ft.3, with the respective maximum loads of the forward and aft cargo compartments being 3,020 lb. and 2,271 lb.

    The slightly larger E175 is able to carry more passengers than the E170, with the ERJ 170-200 STD and LR—marketed as the E175 Advanced Range (AR) and LR—both certified to seat up to 88 passengers. As is the case with the E170AR and LR, the E175AR and LR—which offer the highest seating capacity of the current ERJ 170 variants—are able to accommodate that passenger capacity in a high-density configuration, with that configuration having 88 seats with a 29-in. pitch. An alternative single-class configuration for the E175 accommodates 78 seats with a 32-in. or 33-in. pitch, while a possible dual-class configuration is promoted by Embraer as reducing that capacity to 76 passengers. Those 76 seats include 12 seats in a premium class that have a 36-in. pitch, as well as 64 seats in the main cabin that have a 31-in. pitch. While the E175SU and LL retain the same fuselage dimensions as the E175AR/LR, those variants have reduced respective capacities of 76 and 70. Supplementing the increased passenger capacity of the E175 are increases in the maximum cargo volume, as well as the maximum loads able to be carried in the forward and aft cargo compartments. The cargo volume is increased to 604.59 ft.3, while the forward and aft cargo compartments are able to accommodate up to 3,307 lb. and 2,535 lb., respectively.

    The most recently certified E175 variant—the ERJ 170-200 LL—is marketed as the E175 Special Configuration (SC), an airframe that is limited to a maximum passenger capacity of 70 in order to meet the scope-clause requirements of U.S. carriers American Airlines, Delta Air Lines and United Airlines. Despite having its capacity capped at that lower amount, the airframe gives operators “enough cabin space to keep the same number of business-class and premium-economy seats as a 76-seat aircraft.” From a market perspective, Embraer describes the E175SC’s configuration as being “ideally suited for routes that have a high component of premium-fare demand.”

    In contrast to the E175SC’s reduced capacity, capacity will be further increased on the in-development E175-E2, with that variant of the type featuring an extra row of seats in comparison to the prior-generation E175 variants. The highest-capacity configuration available for that airframe expected to be able to seat 90 passengers (42 seats with a 30-in. pitch and 48 seats with a 29-in. pitch). An alternative single-class configuration accommodates 88 seats (80 seats with a 31-in. pitch and eight with a 30-in. pitch), while a three-class configuration will reduce capacity to 80 seats (12 with a 36-in. pitch, 12 with a 34-in. pitch and 56 with a 30-in. pitch). The planned cargo compartment capacities include a total loading of 5,842 lb. and volume of 602.1 ft.3, with that loading divided between 3,307 lb. in the forward compartment and 2,535 lb. in the aft compartment. The volumes of those compartments are 288.2 ft.3 and 313.9 ft.3, respectively, with the loading and volume figures for the forward cargo compartment assuming a standard configuration.  

    Avionics

    Despite the differences in dimensions and passenger capacity, there are a significant number of characteristics shared by the E170 and E175, including the type rating necessary for pilots. The first-generation versions of those airplanes are equipped with Honeywell’s Primus Epic integrated avionics system, which includes five 8 X 10-in. displays. The E170 and E175 E1 variants also incorporate an open-loop FBW flight control system that controls the airframe’s pitch and yaw. Part of an upgrade introduced on the first-generation E170 and E175 was Honeywell’s Next Generation Flight Management System (NGFMS), an upgrade that is available on new build airframes—as well as a retrofit option for existing ones—from 2015. Also found on Boeing 747-8 and Gulfstream’s G650 airframes, that upgraded FMS improves the efficiency of equipped airframes through the inclusion of a “cost index” and “ECON speeds,” features that improve fuel burn. Other efficiency benefits of the NGFMS that are promoted by Honeywell include the ability to perform “off-idle descent[s]” and the “automated calculation” of landing speeds. The navigational benefits of the NGFMS include the ability of equipped airframes to perform required navigation performance authorization required (RNP AR) approaches to 0.1 nm, as well as localizer performance with vertical guidance (LPV) instrument approach procedures. Safety is enhanced through the “next generation of Honeywell’s Runway Awareness and Advisory System (RAAS)” that features an “Advanced SmartRunway option” which incorporates “key components of” the company’s SmartLanding system. According to the avionics manufacturer, the “Advanced RAAS” improves the safety of operations through by reducing the risk of runway excursions through by providing crews with “early identification and crew alerting of an unstable approach.”

    The E175-E2 incorporates Honeywell’s Primus Epic 2 integrated avionics system that features “advanced graphics capabilities” and the NGFMS, as well as “large landscape displays.” The five displays on the first-generation E170/E175 are replaced by four 13 X 10-in. displays on the E175-E2, while both the first- and second-generation E-Jet airframes are able to be equipped with a pair of optional head-up displays (HUD).

    Supplementing the E2’s upgraded avionics is a closed-loop FBW flight control system that was “developed in-house,” and which is also described by Embraer as being as being a fourth-generation system. In comparison to the open-loop FBW system found on first-generation series of E-Jets, the E2 airframes have an FBW system that includes features such as “full envelope protection in all phases of flight” and which has two modes: normal and direct. In comparison to the FBW system found on the first-generation E-Jets—with those airframes being “designed conventionally and an FBW [system] was added”—the E175-E2’s FBW system is more integrated. That integration—the fact that the FBW system was part of the E-Jet E2’s design “from the beginning”—had a number of impacts on the second-generation airframes. One is example of that is the reduced weight of the wing structure, which was enabled “because the ailerons are used in more situations throughout the flight.”

    Mission and Performance

    The primary competition for the E170 and E175 is MHIRJ’s (formerly Bombardier’s) CRJ series—specifically, the CRJ700 and CRJ900—with the E170 comparable to the former CRJ airframe and the E175 similar to the latter. Comparable limitations of both the E170 and CRJ700—with the three variants of the latter based on the CL-600-2C10 type—include maximum passenger seating capacity, with the CRJ700 [CL-600-2C10 (Regional Jet Series 700)] certified to accommodate up to 68 passengers, a limitation that is increased on the CRJ701 (Regional Jet Series 701) by two to 70 passengers. The CRJ702 (Regional Jet Series 702) matches the 78-passenger capacity of the E170 AR and LR, while being limited to a lower range of 1,400 nm. Although the larger CRJ900, which is based on the CL-600-2D24 type, has a greater maximum passenger capacity (90) “when fitted with an approved interior” than any of currently produced E175 variants—the E175-E2 is expected to be certified to the same capacity—the range of that CRJ-series airframe is less than the competing Embraer airframes. To that end, while the in-production E175 variants are capable of ranges exceeding 2,000 nm, the CRJ900 is promoted as having a range of 1,550 nm. Another limitation that is higher on the E170/E175 than the CRJ700/CRJ900 is maximum takeoff weight (MTOW), with the highest such limitation of the CRJ900 being 4,500 lb. less than the highest limitation of the E175. Finally, the E170 and E175 can be further distinguished from the CRJ700 and CRJ900 by their design, with those Embraer airframes not being “expansions or contractions of existing aircraft.”

    Comparison: E170/E175 and CRJ700/900

    Commercial Designation

    E170AR

    E170LR

    E175AR

    E175LR

    CRJ702

    CRJ900

    Maximum Capacity

    78

    88

    78

    90

    Range (nm)

    2,150

    2,100

    2,200

    2,150

    1,400*

    1,550

    Engines (2x)

    General Electric CF34

    -8E5 or -8E5A1

    -8C1 or

    -8C5B1

    -8C5 or

    -8C5A1

    Maximum Takeoff Weight (MTOW)(lb.)

    85,097

    89,000

    85,517

    75,000

    84,500

    Maximum Landing Weight (lb.)

    73,414

    73,413

    75,177

    74,957

    67,000

    75,100

             

    *The 1,400-nm range is not specific to the CL-600-2C10 (Regional Jet Series 702)

    Beyond the CRJ700 and CRJ900, another airframe that is poised to compete with the first-generation E175, as well as the E175-E2, is Mitsubishi Aircraft Corp.’s SpaceJet M100, an airplane that is also powered by a variant of Pratt & Whitney’s geared turbofan (GTF) engine series. Specifically, the M100 will feature a variant of the PW1200G engine. With respect to passenger accommodations, the M100 is planned to have a maximum capacity of 88, with those seats having a 29-in. pitch. According to the Mitsubishi Aircraft Corp., the typical single-class configuration will accommodate 84 seats with a 31-in. pitch, while, when configured in a triple-class arrangement, the cabin can seat 76 passengers in 12 premium-class seats that have a 36-in. pitch, 12 premium-economy seats with a 33-in. pitch and 52 economy-class seats that offer a 30-in. pitch. As it is currently advertised, the SpaceJet M100—with a range of 1,910 nm based on a passenger weight of 225 lb., standard conditions, no wind, the airplane operated at the long-range cruise speed and with a 100-nm alternate—would fall short of the range capabilities of the E170 and E175.

    Although the performance figures of the E170 and E175 differ in a number of ways, both share a common maximum operating limit speed (MMO) of 0.82 Mach, as well as a maximum operating altitude of 41,000 ft. In addition to that maximum operating altitude for en route operations, both the E170 and E175 are limited to a maximum altitude on takeoff of 10,000 ft. However, given the differences between the AR and LR variants of both the E170 and E175, the performance figures for those airframes differ as well. For instance, the E170AR and LR are promoted as having takeoff field lengths—based on the MTOW of those variants, standard conditions, sea-level altitude and CF34-8E5 (E170LR) and -8E5A1 (E170AR) engines—of 5,394 ft. and 5,190 ft., respectively. The comparable landing fields lengths—assuming the maximum landing weights (MLW), standard conditions and sea-level altitude—differ by slightly more than 40 ft. at 4,072 ft. and 4,029 ft. Finally, the 2,150-nm range of the E170AR and 2,100-nm range of the E170LR assume an airframe configured in a single-class configuration—with seats that have a 32-in. pitch—all seats occupied by a passenger with an assumed weight of 220 lb. and the airplane operated at the long-range cruise speed and with “typical mission reserves.” Finally, the time to climb to flight level (FL) 350—assuming that an airplane has a takeoff weight (TOW) for a 500-nm flight and is fully loaded with passengers—is 16 min.  

    The comparable figures for the E175AR and LR are based on the same criteria as those for the E170, with the respective takeoff field lengths noted as being 7,362 ft. and 5,656 ft. Despite that difference in takeoff field lengths, the landing field lengths of those variants differ by only 6 ft.—4,137 ft. (E175AR) and 4,131 ft. (E175LR)—while the range of these E-Jets also differs by 50 nm. To that end, the E175AR is capable of operating to a range of 2,200 nm, while the E175LR reduces that figure to 2,150 nm. As is the case with the aforementioned E170 variants, these versions of the E175 are both promoted as being able to climb to FL350 in the same amount of time (18 min.).

    Also based on the same criteria—with the exception of the takeoff distance assuming a standard engine—the performance of the second-generation E175-E2 is expected to include takeoff and landing field lengths of 5,676 ft. and 4,413 ft., respectively. The 41,000-ft. maximum operating altitude of the first-generation E175 will be retained, while the airframe’s range—also based on the same criteria except for a 100-nm alternate—is expected to be 2,000 nm. 

    Variants

    E170 Specifications

    Type Designation

    ERJ 170-100 STD

    ERJ 170-100 LR

    ERJ 170-100 SU

    ERJ 170-100 SE

    Commercial Designation

    E170AR

    E170LR

    E170SU

    E170SE

    Maximum Capacity

    78

    76

    70

    Range (nm)

    2,150

    2,100

    Engines (2x)

    General Electric CF34-8E5 or -8E5A1

    Basic Operating Weight* (lb.)

    45,636

    Maximum Takeoff Weight (MTOW)(lb.)

    85,097

    Maximum Landing Weight (lb.)

    73,414

    73,413

    Maximum Payload* (lb.)

    21,480

    21,252

    Wingspan

    85 ft. 4 in.

    Wing Area

    783 ft.2

    Length

    98 ft. 1 in.

    Height

    32 ft. 3 in.

          

      *In an airplane with a standard configuration

    E175 Specifications

    Type Designation

    ERJ 170-200 STD

    ERJ 170-200 LR

    ERJ 170-200 SU

    ERJ 170-200 LL

    Commercial Designation

    E175AR

    E175LR

    E175SU

    E175SC

    E175-E2

    Maximum Passenger Capacity

    88

    76

    70

    90

    Range (nm)

    2,200

    2,150

    2,000

    Engines (2x)

    General Electric CF34-8E5 or -8E5A1

    Pratt & Whitney PW1714G

    Basic Operating Weight* (lb.)

    49,604

    48,250

    47,399

    Maximum Takeoff Weight (MTOW)(lb.)

    89,000

    85,098

    98,326

    Maximum Landing Weight (lb.)

    75,177

    74,957

    88,184

    Maximum Payload* (lb.)

    22,487

    22,487

    23,368

    Usable Fuel (gal./lb.)

    3,071/20,785

    3,071/20,785

    2,815/19,058 (Max)

    Wingspan

    85 ft. 4 in./93 ft. 11 in.

    102 ft. 11.9 in.

    Length

    103 ft. 11 in.

    106 ft. 2.2 in.

    Height

    32 ft. 4 in.

    33 ft. 5 in.

             

    *In an airplane with a standard configuration

    GE CF34-8 Engines

    All variants of the E170, as well as the first-generation E175, are powered by a pair of General Electric (GE) CF34-8E engines that are described as being in the 14,500-lb. thrust class of turbofan engines. Specifically, the ERJ 170-100 and -200 are certified to be equipped with the CF34-8E5 and -8E5A1 variants. According to the FAA type certificate data sheet (TCDS) for the CF34-8E engines, they are axial-flow, dual-rotor, high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines that have a “single-stage fan.” Additional components of those CF34 engines include an annular combustion chamber, thrust reverser and axial compressor, the latter of which has ten stages. Comparatively, the high- and low-pressure turbines have two and four stages, respectively, with both engine variants also featuring a full authority digital engine control (FADEC) system. These variants of the CF34-8E are promoted as having a noise level that “meets or surpasses” the International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO) Chapter 4 standards, with the level of emissions produced meeting or surpassing the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection’s CAEP/6 standards. Furthermore, the CF34-8E “incorporates a nacelle design specifically tailored to the [E170/E175] underwing installation.”

    Pratt & Whitney PW1714G

    The second-generation E175-E2 will be distinguished not only by increased maximum weights and passenger capacities, but also by the engines that power the airframe. In contrast to the CF34 engines that powered all first-generation E-Jets, all E-Jet E2 airframes will be powered by a pair of Pratt & Whitney GTF engines. The specific GTF engine that will power the E175-E2 is the PW1714G which is “aeromechanically identical” to the PW1200G that powers Mitsubishi’s SpaceJet series of airframes and, according to Pratt & Whitney, provides both economic and environmental benefits. Those benefits—which include a “double-digit reduction in fuel consumption,” as well as a noise footprint and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions (from CAEP/6) that are reduced by up to 75% and 50%, respectively—are enabled by the engine’s “geared architecture, combined with an all-new, advanced engine core.” Specific features of the PW1700G include a 56-in. fan diameter and 9:1 bypass ratio, with the internal engine components including an eight-stage high-pressure compressor, two-stage low-pressure compressor, two-stage high-pressure turbine and three-stage low-pressure turbine. The engine manufacturer also states the PW1700G is capable of providing between 15,000 and 17,000 lb. of thrust.

    E170 and E170

    The MTOW of the E170SU and SE, as well as the MLW for all E170 variants, differs based on whether a particular airframe incorporates the modifications of certain service bulletins (SB), with the ERJ 170-100 STD certified to five MTOWs. Although Embraer has certified four variants of the ERJ 170-100 that serves as the basis for the E170, there are no plans to bring to market a second-generation version of that airframe.

    Beyond the passenger capacity and performance-related distinctions, other differences between the current-generation E170 and E175 variants include cargo volume, weights and dimensions, with the E175’s fuselage measuring nearly 6 ft. longer when compared to the E170. In addition to the E175’s longer fuselage, other dimensional changes to the E175 include an increased wingspan on some airframes. Indeed, in contrast to the E170—which has a common set of dimensions—E175s can also be distinguished based on dimensions. Specifically, whether they feature extended winglets or incorporate the modifications of SB 0170-57-0058. Airframes that fall into that category have a wingspan that is 8 ft. 7 in. greater than what is found on E175s that do not have extended wingtip or incorporate the aforementioned SB, with that change replacing the vertical winglets with a wingtip that has a dihedral of 45 deg. Although the changes made to the wingtip resulted in additional “structure [being] required to compensate for the increased bending loads of the wing,” the “the aerodynamic benefits” of the modification more than offset the added weight. Specific changes to the wing structure made to accommodate the additional bending loads of the new winglet involved the “local strengthening [of] the wingbox,” as well as “skins and stub wing where the unit attaches to the fuselage.” The upgrade that introduced those winglets for the E175—as well as avionics, interior and systems enhancements—was announced by Embraer in January 2013, alongside an order for 47 E175s from U.S. regional airline Republic Airways. At the time, the airframe manufacturer noted that Republic would be the first operator to receive an E175 with the aerodynamic changes, updated winglets and optimized systems.

    Prior to the introduction of the updated winglets, the first improvements made to improve the fuel consumption of the E175 were made in 2013 and involved “a series of aerodynamic ‘clean up’ features to reduce drag,” as well as the “optimization of the” anti-ice and environmental control systems, with the goal of latter being to “reduce excessive use of bleed air.” Another fuel-burn improvement “package” introduced the new wingtip and also involved the aerodynamic cleanup of the anti-collision light and auxiliary power unit (APU) inlet. Described as an “interim step toward developing the” E-Jet E2 airframes, the objective of this upgrade was to “form a foundation for development of the E2 generation [airframes], while at the same time bridging the gap between the current production versions and their successors.” Avionics changes made include the previously mentioned NGFMS was part of this improved E175, while enhancements to the airframe’s components—as well as increased maintenance intervals—were promoted as “increasing aircraft productivity and lower[ing] maintenance costs.” Other benefits to operators of upgraded airframes include the fuel burn being lowered by 6.4% in comparison to the “baseline model,” an improvement on the company’s initial expectation when the upgrades were announced in 2013 of a 5% reduction. The majority of that fuel burn improvement is the result of the aforementioned 45-deg. wingtip that increased the E175’s wingspan.

    E175 High-and-Hot Upgrade

    Another upgrade to the E175—a “hot-and-high performance improvement package”—was developed by Embraer and launched by United Airlines, with that upgrade allowing equipped airframes “to fly an additional 500 nm from airports such as Denver” that are at high elevations and in hot conditions. The incorporation of the hot-and-high upgrade—which increases the E175’s range by 50% in comparison to “the baseline aircraft’s 1,000-nm capability”—requires that an airframe was delivered subsequent to April 2014, as well as features the extended winglet design noted above and “other aerodynamic enhancements.” Indeed, the hot-and-high upgrade leverages performance that is provided by the “extended-span variant” of the E175.  

    E175SC

    Certified in February 2018, the aforementioned E175SC—in addition to having a reduced seating capacity to meet the requirements of U.S. airline scope clauses—is also sold at a reduced cost and has a lower MTOW than the E175AR and LR. Despite having a reduced capacity and MTOW, because the E175SC is based on the “regular E175 airframe, it can easily be modified to the typical 76-seat configuration.” However, because that variant of the E175 is sold “at E170 pricing,” that modification “will have to go through Embraer,” with the cost “bridg[ing] the gap between the price for which the aircraft was sold and the standard E175 pricing.”

    E175-E2

    In comparison to the current variants of the E175, the E175-E2 will use 16% less fuel, while the airframe’s maintenance costs are promoted by Embraer as being by 25% lower on a per-seat basis. From a maintenance perspective, the company promotes the second-generation airplane as having, along with the E190-E2 and E195-E2, “the longest maintenance intervals in the single-aisle category.” Although the E175-E2 is planned to have a maximum capacity that is only slightly higher than what is currently available with the E175AR and LR, the anticipated increase in MTOW will be greater than 9,000 lb. in comparison to highest-MTOW variant of the first-generation E175. Other changes incorporated into the E2 will include a new wing, which is a “downsized version” of the wing found on the E190-E2. Replacing the wingtips found on the ERJ 170-100/-200 are raked wingtips, while the landing gear are also new in order to “accommodate the larger-diameter engines.” Overall, the percentage of new systems in comparison to the first-generation E175 is 75%. It is because of the changes in MTOW—which are attributed to the changes to the wing and the PW1700G engines—and passenger capacity that the E175-E2 falls outside of the scope clauses contained in the pilot contracts of the aforementioned U.S. airlines, with those contacts generally restricting RJs operated by regional partners to no more than 76 seats and an MTOW of 86,000 lb.

    Program Status/Operators

    In addition to being the location of Embraer’s headquarters and where first flight of each E-Jet series airframe has taken place, Sao Jose dos Campos is also where Embraer produces the company’s commercial airframes.

    Because of the previously discussed issues with scope clause compliance, that ability of SkyWest to operate the E175-E2s that the company ordered—and consequently the order for those airframes—is in doubt. Indeed, in 2018 Embraer removed SkyWest’s order—“which was conditioned on scope clause change”—from its backlog. As a result of the uncertainly regarding scope clause expansion and the ability of regional airlines in the U.S. to operate airplanes that exceed the current limitations for legacy airlines, Embraer, in 2016, pushed back the entry-into-service date of the E175-E2 by a year to 2021. A further delay to was announced by the company in August 2020 when it announced it second quarter 2020 financial results, with that delay being attributed to the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. As a result of the impact of Covid-19, “the start of operations with the E175-E2” was delayed to 2023. Less than nine months after that delay was announced, Embraer announced a further delay to the beginning of operations by a further year, with the event now expected to occur in 2024.

    Following the multiple delays to the E175-E2’s entry-into-service date, Embraer stated in a February 2022 regulatory filing that the “development program” of the variant would be paused for a period of three years. According to that filing, the cause of the “re-programming of activities” is the result several factors, including the previously discussed scope-clause issues with U.S. airlines, “continuing interest” from U.S. operators in the ”current E175” and commercial aviation market conditions globally. The company stated that it expects to resume development following the three-year suspension, with the airframe then expected to enter service “between 2027 and 2028.”

    With respect to flight testing, in comparison to the four airframes used for the E190-E2’s flight-test program, as well as the two used for the E195-E2, Embraer plans to use three airframes for the testing of the second-generation E175. The first two flight-test airframes are intended to be utilized to conduct tests related to aerodynamics, performance and systems, while the third airframe will have a cabin with “interior furnishings” and “be used to validate maintenance tasks.” 

    On July 5, 2018, Embraer announced that they had signed a memorandum of understanding with Boeing to create a joint venture involving the former company’s commercial aircraft and services business. The result of that agreement—which was approved by Embraer’s shareholders on Feb. 26, 2019—would have had “Boeing hold[ing] an 80% ownership stake in the joint venture,” with Embraer owning the other 20%. While the completion of the deal was expected to occur “by the end of 2019”—with Embraer’s commercial aircraft business to be rebranded as Boeing Brasil – Commercial—Boeing announced on April 25, 2020, that the company had terminated the “Master Transaction Agreement” that it had made with Embraer. The result of that termination was the cancellation of joint ventures for both Embraer’s commercial business and the Brazilian company’s C-390 multi-mission transport airplane. Boeing noted at the time of the termination of the agreement that the joint venture had “received unconditional approval from all necessary regulatory authorities, with the exception of the European Commission.” Although the type certificates for both the ERJ 170 and ERJ 190 types were transferred to Yabora Industria Aeronautica S.A. from Jan. 31, 2020, until Jan. 1, 2022, those types certificates were transferred back to Embraer S.A. on the latter date.

    References

    • AWIN Article Archives
    • Embraer, GE Aviation, Honeywell, MHIRJ and Pratt & Whitney Commercial Materials
    • ANAC TCDS (ERJ 170, ERJ 190)
    • FAA TCDS (ERJ 170, CF34)
    • Securities and Exchange Commission Form 6-K (Embraer S.A.)
    Channel
    Commercial Aviation
    Market Indicator Code
    Commercial
    Article page size
    10
    Profile page size
    2
    Program Profile ID
    641
  • De Havilland Aircraft of Canada Dash 8-400 (Bombardier Q400)

    Date: 10/04/2022 11:17 PM

    De Havilland Aircraft of Canada Dash 8-400 (Bombardier Q400)[email protected]Tue, 10/04/2022 - 21:17

    The Dash 8-400 is a twin-engine turboprop airplane currently produced by Canadian manufacturer De Havilland Aircraft of Canada Ltd., itself a subsidiary of Canadian aerospace company Longview Aviation Capital Corp. Described on its Transport Canada type certificate data sheet (TCDS) as being a derivative of the DHC-8 Series 100 aircraft, this fourth series of the Dash 8 was first announced at the June 1987 Paris Air Show and launched eight years later in June 1995 at the same event. Its first flight took place on Jan. 31, 1998, from Toronto’s Downsview Airport, a flight that lasted 3 hr. and which was performed by an airframe registered as C-FJJA (serial no. 4001). Subsequently, three variants of the DHC-8 Series 400—the DHC-8-400, -401 and -402—were certified by Transport Canada on July 30, 1999, Aug. 3, 1999 and Aug. 4, 1999, respectively, with the first delivery of a Dash 8-400 taking place on Jan. 18, 2000, to SAS Commuter. Following that delivery, the first revenue flight by that operator—aboard a dual-class airplane configured with 72 seats—took place between Copenhagen and Poznan, Poland on Feb. 9, 2000. Improvements made by Bombardier to this series of DHC-8 airframes included increased-capacity and combination passenger/cargo variants, as well as what was marketed as the Q400 NextGen, an upgrade that was launched in March 2008 and first delivered on May 11, 2009, to Norwegian regional airline Wideroe.

    Bombardier announced on Nov. 8, 2018, that the Dash 8 program—which, in addition to the Dash 8-400, includes the 100, 200 and 300 Series variants—would be sold to Longview Aviation Capital Corp. In addition to purchasing the Dash 8 program from Bombardier, Longview is also the parent company of Viking Air Ltd., which, in 2006, acquired the type certificates and manufacturing rights to all out-of-production de Havilland Canada aircraft—including the DHC-1 Chipmunk, DHC-2 Beaver, DHC-3 Otter, DHC-4 Caribou, DHC-5 Buffalo and DHC-7 (Dash 7)—as well as currently producing an upgraded variant of the DHC-6 Twin Otter dubbed the Twin Otter Series 400. Following the sale—which Bombardier noted would generate “gross proceeds of approximately $300 million” and included the assets, intellectual property and type certificates of the Dash 8 program—Longview noted that they would “become North America’s largest commercial turboprop aircraft manufacturer.” The sale of the Dash 8 program also represented the end of Bombardier’s involvement in the regional turboprop market, which the company entered in 1992 following its acquisition of de Havilland Canada from Boeing. Since 2008, the variants of the Q400 series were the only Dash 8 airframes produced.

    Cabin Configurations/Outfitting/Volume and Passenger Capacity

    In terms of passenger accommodations, the DHC-8-400, -401 and -402 are certified to maximum passenger capacities of 68, 70 and 90, respectively, in addition to the two required pilots and two required flight attendants. The current production variant of the type is the -402, a variant that can be configured in a 74-seat dual-class configuration, an 82-seat single-class configuration and a 90-seat “extra-capacity” configuration. The 74-seat dual-class configuration includes eight business-class seats and 66 main-cabin seats, while the single-class and extra-capacity accommodations are based on a single-class configuration. In a fuselage that has a maximum diameter of 8 ft. 10 in., the single-class configuration is advertised as having a seat pitch of 30 in., while the extra-capacity configuration reduces that figure to 28 in. In the dual-class configuration, the main-cabin seats retain the 30-in. pitch noted above, while the premium-class seats increase it to 36 in. When configured in a passenger-only layout, the cabin has a volume of 2,740 ft.3, with another 411 ft.3 available for cargo.

    Promoted as being “the world’s only commercial turboprop capable of carrying 90 passengers,” the 90-seat extra-capacity configuration was launched by Bombardier on Feb. 17, 2016, with its seat costs marketed as being 15% less than the “previous standard” of the airframe. The company further noted that when equipped with 90 seats, the airframe “is ideally suited to markets in growing economies and low-cost business models,” markets “where both capacity and seat-mile costs are key.” The delivery of the first 90-seat Dash 8-400, to Indian low-cost carrier SpiceJet, was announced by Bombardier on Sept. 21, 2018, following a September 2017 order from that carrier. Prior to the introduction of the 90-seat configuration option, Bombardier developed an 86-seat configuration that removed the forward cargo hold used by some operators for excess cabin baggage and crew luggage, with the first delivery of an airframe configured with 86 seats occurring in August 2014 to Thai low-cost carrier Nok Air.

    Additional features of the passenger-only Dash 8-400 cabin include aspects that improve the boarding process, the amount of overhead storage space available, the interior outfitting, the cabin noise level and the presence of a “true business class.” The “true business class” option allows the Dash 8-400 to be promoted as the only turboprop in the market to offer such accommodations, with the airframe able to be configured with three-abreast seating in business class, as opposed to the four-abreast seating available in the main cabin. The first dual-class configured Dash 8-400 was delivered to Ethiopian Airlines in 2012, with the configuration at the time of delivery including seven business-class seats and 60 economy-class seats. Passengers can board the airplane through doors that are located forward and aft, a feature that, in the turboprop market, is also noted as being unique. Supplementing this configuration allowing passengers to board at the forward and aft portions of the cabin is the fact that the airplane is also capable of using airport jetways.

    Inside the cabin, the overhead bins are promoted as having the space to “easily accommodate 22 X 16 X 10.5-in. roller bags,” with stowage space available for 52 bags. Passenger-comfort features of the Dash 8-400 include “large windows that maximize natural light and improved LED lighting,” with the latter incorporating “sidewall and ceiling-wash LED cool lighting.” Furthermore, the noise level in the cabin is reduced by the Active Noise and Vibration Suppression system, which reduces noise levels to a point “lower than those of some jets.” An available option that further enhances the passenger experience is an inflight entertainment system that “allows passengers to access content on their personal devices.”

    Avionics

    Flight crews operate the Dash 8-400 using a Thales avionics system that includes five displays, single or dual UNS-1E flight management system(s) provided by Universal Avionics and a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS). Other avionics capabilities include coupled vertical navigation (VNAV), the ability to utilize satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS) such as the wide area augmentation system (WAAS) to conduct localizer performance with vertical guidance (LPV) approaches—in addition to having the ability to perform required navigational performance authorization required (RNP AR) approaches—automatic dependent surveillance—broadcast (ADS-B) Out, an enhanced ground-proximity warning system (EGPWS) and an Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS). Also available is a Class 2 electronic flight bag, as well as a head-up guidance system.

    Mission and Performance

    At the time that it was launched, the Dash 8-400 had other turboprop-powered competitors that included the Dornier 328 and Saab 2000, both of which could deliver comparable performance. Those competing airframes are no longer in production, however, and with respect to passenger capacity, the closest current competition for the Dash 8-400 in the commercial turboprop market is Avions de Transport Regional’s (ATR) ATR 72-600, which has a maximum certified capacity—with certain modifications made—of 78 passengers. Although the ATR 72 is not promoted as offering a business class, ATR does note that it is able to accommodate 72 seats with a 29-in. pitch, while the 78-seat maximum capacity requires a 28-in. pitch. An additional commonality between these airframes is the ability to offer a passenger/cargo combination (combi) configuration, with the ATR 72 marketed as being able to carry 44 passengers and 6,830 lb. of cargo in that type of configuration. In spite of those similarities, the ATR 72 does not offer the ability to match the Dash 8-400’s 90-seat capacity or range, while other performance metrics—including takeoff and landing distances—maximum weights and cargo capacity are higher on the de Havilland-produced airplane.

    With regard to the performance differences between the ATR 72 and Dash 8-400, the maximum operating limit speed (VMO) listed below for the latter is 36 kt. greater than the 250-kt. limitation in the FAA TCDS for the ATR 72-212A. In addition to having a higher VMO, the Dash 8-400’s capabilities at both high and low airspeeds were also promoted by Bombardier, with the former benefits in comparison to jets noted below. At “lower speeds,” the airplane was promoted as having “the same trip cost as competing turboprops,” while also being able to accommodate “up to 14 more seats.”

    From a performance perspective, the Dash 8-400 is limited to a VMO of 286 kt. indicated airspeed (KIAS) between 18,000 and 20,000 ft., as well as a maximum-operating altitude of 25,000 ft. In addition to that airspeed limitation, this Dash 8 variant is promoted as having long-range, intermediate, high-speed and maximum cruise speeds of 300, 320, 340 and 360 kt., respectively. The 25,000-ft. operating limitation is supplemented by the fact that the airframe is capable of operating at airports up to 10,000 ft. in elevation. Beyond those certified limitations, Bombardier promoted the Q400 as being able to operate to an altitude of 27,000 ft. and from airports as high as 14,000 ft.

    Based on an average passenger weight of 225 lb., the range of the higher maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) version of the airframe (67,199 lb.) is promoted as being 1,100 nm. Assuming an MTOW of 61,700 lb. and a 60,500-lb. maximum landing weight (MLW)—as well as assuming standard conditions and sea-level altitude—the Dash 8-400’s respective takeoff and landing distances are 4,265 ft. and 4,160 ft. At the higher MTOW—and with a 64,000-lb. MLW, standard conditions and sea-level altitude—those distances are increased to 4,675 ft. and 4,229 ft. Those performance capabilities are supplemented by the Dash 8-400’s ability to use runways with a slope of up to 4.6%—in addition to those which are unpaved—conduct steep approaches and operate in temperatures as low as -54C [-65F]. The airplane’s avionics, short-field performance, superior climb profile and “special operations capabilities”—the previously discussed ability to conduct RNP and steep approaches, as well as operate from gravel and narrow runways—are promoted as allowing it to “profitably operate out of the most challenging airports.” In comparison to conventional turboprop airplanes, the Dash 8-400’s airspeed is noted as being 30% faster, while its high-speed cruise speed is promoted as “plac[ing] [it] within minutes of jet schedules.”

    Variants

    Dash 8-400 Series

     

    DHC-8-400

    DHC-8-401

    DHC-8-402

    Maximum Passenger Capacity

    68

    70

    90

    Maximum Range (nm)

    1,102

    Engines (2x)

    Pratt & Whitney Canada PW150A

    Maximum Takeoff Rating (shp)

    5,071

    Maximum Takeoff Weight (MTOW) (lb.)

    61,700/67,199

    Maximum Landing Weight (lb.)

    60,500/64,000

    Fuel Capacity (usable) (gal./lb.)

    1,724/11,724

    Wingspan

    93 ft. 3 in.

    Wing Area (ft.2)

    689

    Length

    107 ft. 9 in.

    Height

    27 ft. 5 in.

    PW150A Engines

    In keeping with the first three series of the DHC-8 type, the Dash 8-400 is powered by a pair of Pratt & Whitney Canada engines. Those engines are the PW150A variant that has a power rating at takeoff of 5,071 shp and is flat-rated to 22.4C (72.32F). Those engines power two Dowty Aerospace model R408/6-123-F/17 variable-pitch composite propeller blades that are electronically controlled and which have a nominal blade diameter of 13.5 ft. When compared to “conventional turboprops,” the combination of passenger capacity and speed are marketed as enabling the variants of the Dash 8-400 series to complete “at least one extra flight per day,” enabling the “generation of 30% more ASK (available seat kilometers).” When configured to carry 90 passengers, the airframe is further promoted as having per-seat costs on a 300-nm trip that are 20% lower than competing 76-seat turboprops, as well as a trip cost that is half that of a large single-aisle jet equipped with 170 seats.

    Dash 8-400 Design

    In comparison to the DHC-8 Series 300, the Dash 8-400 represents a 23 ft. 6 in. stretch, with modifications also made to the ailerons and flaps, and the inner-wing configuration and main landing gear—“including [the] wheels and brakes”—being new. Systems that were improved on these variants of the DHC-8 include the avionics, electrical, environmental control, flight controls and hydraulics.

    Dash 8-400 Passenger-Cargo Combi Configuration

    Beyond the passenger-only configurations, this Dash 8 variant also is available in a combi configuration that reduces the amount of space available for passenger seating, while increasing the space for cargo. Promoted as combining “the revenue flexibility of a large cargo hold with the speed and passenger comfort of a modern regional aircraft,” this configuration option for the Dash 8-400—which was previously marketed as the Q400 cargo-combi aircraft—was “unveiled” at the 2014 Farnborough International Airshow. Subsequently, the delivery of the first airframe in this configuration—to Japanese regional carrier Ryukyu Air Commuter, part of the Japan Airlines Group—was announced on Dec. 31, 2015. As a result of the increased cargo space available with this configuration, the passenger capacity decreased to 50 with seats that have a 32-in. pitch. However, when that pitch is decreased to 29 in., the passenger capacity is able to be increased to 58, with the maximum capacity of a cargo-combi configured airplane noted as being 68. In comparison to the passenger cabin volume noted above, the cargo-combi configuration reduces that volume to “up to 2,277 ft.3,” while the amount of space available for cargo is increased to 1,150 ft.3. Beyond increasing the space available in the cabin for cargo, the maximum weight of cargo that can be accommodated is similarly increased, with that limitation being more than doubled according to Bombardier’s marketing documents. While the maximum cargo weight of a passenger-only configured Dash 8-400 is 3,800 lb., that limit is increased to 9,000 lb. with the combi configuration. An additional feature of the Dash 8-400 cargo-combi airplane is the Class-C cargo compartment.

    Dash 8-400 Simplified Package Freighter

    In addition to the passenger-cargo combi configuration that available to the Dash 8-400, a full-freighter configuration of the airframe is also available, a layout that is “applicable to all current passenger configurations” and which was “approved by Transport Canada to support [the] airlift of freight during the Covid-19 pandemic.” Announced by De Havilland on April 23, 2020, and launched by Kenyan operator 748 Air Services, the service bulletins for the Simplified Package Freighter replaces the passenger seats and seat-track covers, while installing cargo nets that have adjustable straps on the seat tracks. Each of the 17 cargo nets has a capacity 750 lb. and a volume of 33 ft.3, while the replacement of the seats with those 17 nets results in the Dash 8-400’s cabin having a potential payload of “up to” 17,960 lb.—divided between the cargo area and passenger cabin—and total cargo volume that can reach 1,150 ft.3 The first operator of the Simplified Package Freighter was Canadian regional airline Jazz Aviation, which ordered the service bulletin for the conversion and conversion kits for 13 Dash 8-400 airframes. Operated under the Air Canada Express brand, converted airplanes operated by Jazz were meant to serve short and medium-range markets. While the approval of the modifications for the Special Package Freighter configuration were temporarily approved by Transport Canada through July 31, 2021, De Havilland is working to receive permanent certification for those changes.

    Environmental Performance: Emissions, Fuel Burn and Noise

    Beyond its performance and revenue-generating capabilities, Bombardier also promoted the Dash 8-400 as having “the lowest fuel consumption per passenger of any turboprop.” On a 300-nm flight, it produces—on a per-seat basis—8% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than competing turboprops. When compared to in-production 70-seat regional jets (RJ) and out-of-production 50-seat RJs, the reduction in CO2 emissions is touted as being greater than 35% and 45%, respectively, on a 500-nm flight. Specific to short-haul routes where the Dash 8-400 has replaced an RJ of similar capacity, the de Havilland turboprop “burns 30% less fuel and produces 30% lower emissions,” a reduction that is equal to 4,000 metric tons of CO2 per airplane per year. Another way in which the Dash 8-400 improves on the environmental performance of in-production 70-seat RJs is with respect to noise, with the noise footprint of the airplane touted as being “up to” 2.5 times less. Furthermore, the community noise created by the PW150A engines is noted as being “significantly reduced, making [the airframe] ideal for city-center airports.” The airframe’s margin to the Stage 4 noise standard is 15.3 effective perceived noise level in decibels (EPNdB), with a benefit of the Dowty Aerospace propellers’ “lower rpm” being that they “generate more power with less noise.”

    Program Status/Operators

    According to Longview’s press release announcing the purchase of the Dash 8 program, they “will continue to independently operate the program at the original de Havilland manufacturing site located at” Toronto Downsview, a facility that was sold by Bombardier in May 2018 for $635 million. The type certificate for all variants of the DHC-8 was transferred from Bombardier, Inc. to De Havilland Aircraft of Canada Ltd. on June 1, 2019, with the sale of the program also closing that month.

    References

    • AWIN Article Archives
    • ATR, Bombardier and De Havilland Aircraft of Canada Ltd. Commercial Materials
    • FAA TCDS (ATR 72-212A and DHC-8 Series 400) and Transport Canada TCDS (DHC-8 Series 400 and PW150A)
    Channel
    Commercial Aviation
    Market Indicator Code
    Commercial
    Article page size
    10
    Profile page size
    2
    Program Profile ID
    1108

Some of these aviation news pages are compiled with a RSS feed from several news sources. As such, we can not take any responsibility for the correctness of these items.

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